The world’s population is projected to grow from its current level of about 6.6 billion to somewhere between 9.5 billion and 12.9 billion by 21001. This population growth will come with huge demands for housing, water, food, education and other life essentials, all of which will require huge growth in infrastructure. What is clear, however, is that population growth does not correlate to economic growth and that economic growth is likely a better indicator of future demands for cement2.

The composition of OPC has remained largely the same since last century, and the mechanisms of OPC hydration and structure of C-S-H remain difficult to interpret. However, major advances in the use and performance of cement have come from three fundamental areas: (1) construction technology; (2) the science and engineering of composite materials; and (3) admixture chemistry, both organic and inorganic.

Sea route trade started with early expedition in Europe, moved to medieval Asia before taking huge leap in 14 th century AD. When Portuguese arrived in India in 1457 and found that they could buy pepper for a little money in Calicut and sell them at 25 times price in Europe they were seeing a new dawn – using sea transport to exploit an interregional arbitrage. It was not just a commercial success. By bringing spices to the European population in far greater volumes than could be transported overland by camel, live became better and, in modern economic jargon, ‘added value’. Over the succeeding six centuries, as shipping became more efficient, the opportunities to add value by moving goods around the world increased and sea trade grows giving shipping a central role in the globalization of the world economy. Today 11-billion-ton cargoes move between more than 3,000 +major commercial ports.

 Unarguably no form of industry had played such a central part in economic voyages and globalisation over thousands of years. Railways and airlines, shipping’s closest counterpart, had history of barely 150 years.

Energy consumption is one of the largest cost components in the production of Portland cement. Energy is consumed through the fuel required to make the cement, as well as the electricity consumed to operate the manufacturing equipment. This paper discusses the fuel requirements for producing cement and demonstrates some simple techniques for assessing and improving thermal performance. The basic heat requirements for driving the chemical processes are the starting point for the assessment. These are found to be rather similar through-out the industry, with only minor differences between different facilities. Higher chemical variability increases the heat requirements as more heat is required for the reactions and the reaction temperatures are higher. Thermal efficiency is primarily determined by the thermal recuperation of heat contained in the fuel combustion exhaust gases and the intermediate product, clinker. This heat is recuperated in preheaters and clinker coolers respectively. The factors that drive efficient heat recuperation are discussed and simple performance assessment indicators provided. Operators who pay close attention to their thermal performance can reduce operating costs and obtain a competitive advantage in the market.

Mark Mutter and Lawrie Evans, JAMCEM Consulting, UK, explain the importance of adapting standard targets and practices to local plant conditions.
The article describes a method for comprehensive energy audit of the company. Recommendations are given on measurement and reporting, various possibilities and techniques to reduce energy consumption by enterprises are described. Examples of process modernization projects to reduce energy consumption are given.
The paper is devoted to optimization (including using computational aerodynamics) of the conditions for solid fuel combustion in rotary kilns. An example of a successful transition to a 100% combustion of petroleum coke with addition of 15% shredded tires into a kiln inlet is given. The aerodynamic calculations made it possible to determine the necessary parameters of the kiln system, providing a solution to the problem of slag buildup in the preheater.

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